Mesothelioma Cancer

What is Mesothelioma Cancer

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops in the lining that covers the outer surface of some parts of the body, it is usually associated with asbestos exposure.

This mainly affects the lining of the lung (lung disease), although it can also affect the stomach (peritoneal disease), the lining of the heart or testicles.

This is a rare but ,  deadly form of cancer -  the five-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with disease is between five and ten percent. Although aggressive surgery can help some patients with this disease in the early stages, and current treatment for patients with more advanced meso is not effective.

Malignant Mesothelioma -

This is rare , asbestos related cancer that usually forms on the protective lining of the lungs & abdomen . The Disease has not definitive cure .Since the mesothelioma have a long latency period it may be extremely difficult to diagnose.

There are mainly 3 types of Malignant Mesothelioma

1. Pleural - Occurs in the lining of the lungs.

2. Peritoneal - occurs in the lining of the abdomen.

3. Pericardial - That is occurs in the lining of the heart.

Causes of Malignant Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is caused by asbestos exposure, asbestos is a toxic, naturally occurring mineral which was used in many industries till the 1980s. Microscopic asbestos fibers enter the body by inhalation or injection. Once inside the body, asbestos fibers can become swollen and wound which eventually leads the development of cancerous mesothelioma cells.

This is a long latency period between the initial asbestos exposure and the onset of mesothelioma - sometimes 30 to 50 years. Exposure can be directly, such as a job site (factory, shipyard, mine, etc.) or indirectly through secondary exposure. As a result of such secondary risk, wives and children who have been exposed to asbestos have developed refractory mesothelioma.

Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment

  • Surgery for lethal mesothelioma involves the removal of all or part of the lung, peritoneum, or pericardium. If the cancer spreads from them, the parts of the adjacent organs and lymph nodes can be removed.

  • Chemotherapy is used to kill fast-moving malignant mesothelioma cells throughout the body. It is often used in addition to surgery, so that any cancer cells can be destroyed, which remain behind after the procedure.

  • Radiation can help reduce tumor and spread the cancerous cells again, thus preventing recurrence is possible. After the main treatment of surgery and / or chemotherapy, radiation is often used as an adjuvant therapy.

Epithelioid Mesothelioma Characteristics -

  • Cell type with prognosis

  • Pink cytoplasm

  • Elongated

  • Clearly defined elongated

  • Faster tumor growth than other cell type

  • Epithelioid Mesothelioma response the great treatment , becauses it spreads slower than the other cell types

  • tumors made epithelioid cells grow quickly.

  • Epithelioid cells come in different shapes and sizes. Each cellular subtypes responds differently for treatment.

The most Popular subtypes are :

  • Tubulopapillary

  • Acinar

  • Adenomatoid

  • Solid Mesothelial Cell

The Least common subtypes are

  • Clear cell

  • Small Cell

  • Deciduoid

Mesothelioma Cells Types

There are common 3 types of cells

Epithelioid Mesothelioma - This is the most common cell type and accounts for approximately up to 76% of diagnosed cases . Cells shape in the uniform. This is the most treatable and the patients are diagnosed with an epithelioid cell type have the excellent life expectancy .

Epithelioid Mesothelioma have 5 subtypes -

1. Adenoid

2. Small Cell
3. Cystic

2. Sarcomatoid - This disease type is a less common type , this accounting for between 10 percents of mesothelioma cases.Its cell grow out of supportive structure as bones and muscles. It has fewer less treatment options available and the results in a short life expectancy. It usually the most difficult treatment.

Sarcomatoid mesothelioma subtypes - 1. Lymphohistiocytic

2. Desmoplastic

3. Heterologous

4. Osteosarcomatous

5. Chondrosarcoma Tous

3. Biphasic Mesothelioma - This contains a mix of epithelial & sarcomatoid cells type occurs up to 40 percents mesothelioma cases. Patients life expectancy is better in this cases. Epithelial cells are found in the separate area of the tumor . Mesothelioma usually treated with multi modal therapy involving combination of radiation and chemotherapy .
Mesothelioma types by location:

There are mainly 4 types of Mesothelioma that is based on the location where a tumor first time develop. Pleural (Lungs) , Testicular and Peritoneal , Pericardial (Heart Related) .

Mesothelioma can divided on cell type epithelioid , sarcomatoid or biphasic and according to malignancy .

The thins issues lining where the Mesothelioma develops this is known as mesothelium produce in the certain area of the body . It is the area of the chest surrounding the lungs.

Lungs (Pleural) -

This occurs in the lining of the lungs this is also known as the pleural . Pleural accounts for nearly 80% of all the diagnoses this is the most common type of the disease.

Abdomen -

The lining of the abdomen is the 2nd most type location of where the mesothelioma develops it also knowns as the peritoneum. This accounts for approximately 20 to 25 % to all diagnoses.

Heart - Pericardial

The rarest location where the mesothelioma occurs the heart becomes unable to deliver oxygen to the body .It also known as the Pericardial mesothelioma makes up about 1% all about diagnosed mesothelioma cases .

The most common symptoms of this mimic those of heart attack , pain in the chest including. Some of cases pericardial goes to undiagnosed until autopsy is performed .
Types of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma  is classified as most of the place in the body where it develops. Especially, there is a form of cancer in the body of some organs or spaces in the body, which is called mesothelium. This usually develops in one of three distinct areas.

Three Common Types -

1.Plural Mesotheliomas?

Lungs - The Most Common Type of  lung asbestos is due to inhalation of fibers.

2. Peritoneal Disease

Abdomen - Inhalation or swallowing asbestos fibers can be stuck in the peritoneum.

3. Pericardial Mesotheliomas

Heart - In rare cases, asbestos fibers can be recorded in pericardium, lining around the heart cavity.

Mesothelioma Symptoms - Asbestos Cancer Warning Signs

Mesothelioma that affects the pleura can cause these signs and symptoms -

  • Chest pain

  • Lungs from the lungs, or fluid surrounding the lungs

  • Shortness of breath

  • Fatigue or anemia

  • Wheezing, hoarseness, or cough

  • Blood in the sputum (fluid) coming out of cough

In severe cases, tumor may also occur in the person's body. The situation may also arise in the person to stop functioning by pneumothorax, or lungs. Disease can increase and spread to other parts of the body.
Tumors affecting the stomach normally do not cause any symptoms until they reach the very later stage.

Symptoms include:

  • Stomach Pain

  • Abnormal Congestion of fluid in the abdomen

  • Stomach ache

  • Problems in the intestinal work

  • Weight Loss

  • In the several cases of the disease the following symptoms are shows:

  • Blood clots in the veins , which can cause thrombolytic

  • Coagulation a problem that causes severe bleeding in many organs of the body

  • Jaundice, or yellowing in eyes and skin

  • Decrease in blood glucose level

  • Leakage in the lungs

  • Blood clotting in the pulmonary emboli, or lung arteries
    Severe as cites


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